Californium is a radioactive metallic chemical element wi seembol Cf an atomic nummer 98.

  1. 1.0 1.1 CRC 2006, p. 1.14.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 CRC 2006, p. 4.56.
  3. Joseph Jacob Katz; Glenn Theodore Seaborg; Lester R. Morss (1986). The Chemistry of the actinide elements. Chapman and Hall. p. 1038. ISBN 9780412273704. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
  4. Greenwood & Earnshaw 1997, p. 1265.
  5. Kovács, Attila; Dau, Phuong D.; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K. (2018). "Pentavalent Curium, Berkelium, and Californium in Nitrate Complexes: Extending Actinide Chemistry and Oxidation States". Inorg. Chem. American Chemical Society. 57 (15): 9453–9467. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b01450. PMID 30040397.
  6. Emsley 1998, p. 50.
  7. CRC 2006, p. 10.204.
  8. CRC 1991, p. 254.
  9. CRC 2006, p. 11.196.
  10. NNDC contributors (2008). Sonzogni, Alejandro A. (Database Manager) (ed.). "Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  11. Greenwood 1997, p. 1265.
Californium, 98Cf
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Californium
Pronunciation/ˌkælɪˈfɔːrniəm/ (KAL-i-FOR-nee-əm)
Appearancesilvery
Mass number[251]
Californium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Dy

Cf

(Upn)
berkeliumcaliforniumeinsteinium
Atomic nummer (Z)98
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 7
Blockf-block
Element category  Actinide
Electron confeeguration[Rn] 5f10 7s2[1]
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt1173 K ​(900 °C, ​1652 °F)[2]
Bylin pynt1743 K ​(1470 °C, ​2678 °F) (estimation)[3]
Density (near r.t.)15.1 g/cm3[2]
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+2, +3, +4, +5[4][5]
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.3[6]
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 608 kJ/mol[7]
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o californium
Ither properties
Naitural occurrencesynthetic
Creestal structur ​dooble hexagonal close packed
[[File:dooble hexagonal close packed|frameless|alt=Dooble hexagonal close packed creestal structur for californium|upright=0.23|Dooble hexagonal close packed creestal structur for californium]]
Mohs haurdness3–4[8]
CAS Nummer7440-71-3[2]
History
Naminafter Californie, whaur it was discovered
DiskiveryLawrence Berkeley Naitional Laboratory (1950)
Main isotopes o californium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
248Cf syn 333.5 d α (100%) 244Cm
SF (2.9×10−3%)
249Cf syn 351 y α (100%) 245Cm
SF (5.0×10−7%)
250Cf syn 13.08 y α (99.92%) 246Cm
SF (0.08%)
251Cf syn 898 y α 247Cm
252Cf syn 2.645 y α (96.91%) 248Cm
SF (3.09%)
253Cf syn 17.81 d β (99.69%) 253Es
α (0.31%) 249Cm
254Cf syn 60.5 d SF (99.69%)
α (0.31%) 250Cm
Isotope references [9][10]
| references