Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/Persie: ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persie: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (4 September 973 – 9 December 1048), kent as Al-Biruni (Arabic: البيروني), wis an Iranian scholart an polymath frae Khwarezm — a region that encompasses modren-day wastren Uzbekistan, an northren Turkmenistan.
An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a 1973 Soviet post stamp
|Native name||Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Birunī|
|Born||4 September 973|
Kath, or Khiva, Khwarezm, Afrighid dynasty (modern-day Uzbekistan)
|Died||9 December 1048 (aged 75)|
Ghazni, Ghaznavid Empire (modern-day Afghanistan)
|Residence||Khwarezm, Central Asia|
Ziyarid dynasty (Rey)
Ghaznavid dynasty (Ghazni)
|Influences||Aristotle, Ptolemy, Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī, Rhazes, al-Sijzi, Iranshahri, Abu Nasr Mansur, Avicenna, al-Battani, Al-Tamimi|
|Era||Islamic Golden Age|
|Main interests||Geology, physics, anthropology, comparative sociology, astronomy, astrology, chemistry, history, geography, mathematics, medicine, psychology, philosophy, theology|
|Notable wirks||The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, Gems, Indica, The Mas'udi Canon, Understanding Astrology|
|Influenced||Al-Sijzi, Avicenna, Omar Khayyam, al-Khazini, Zakariya al-Qazwini, Maragha observatory, Islamic science, Islamic philosophy|
- PATROLOGIA ORIENTALIS TOMUS DECIMUS, p.291 https://archive.org/stream/patrologiaorient10pariuoft#page/n301
- The Exact Sciences, E.S. Kennedy, The Cambridge History of Iran: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Ed. Richard Nelson Frye, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 394.
- Kemal Ataman, Understanding other religions: al-Biruni's and Gadamer's "fusion of horizons", (CRVP, 2008), 58.
- Sachau, E. (1879). The chronology o auncient naitions; an Inglis version o the Arabic text o the Athâr-ul-Bâkiya of Albîrûnî, or "Vestiges of the past", (p. Vii). Lunnon: Pub. for the Oriental translation fund of Great Britain & Ireland bi W.H. Allen.
“ In our time the word is pronounced Biruni (or Beerooni), e.g. in Teheran. but the vowel of the first syllable is majhul, which means that in more ancient times it was pronounced Beron (or Bayroon)... That the name was pronounced in this way in Central Asia about the author's time, we learn from indisputable statement regarding our author from the pen of Alsam'ani, a philologist and biographer of high repute. ”
- MAcKENZIE, D. (1971). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary (p. 18). OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
- BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN. Encyclopædia Iranica, (1989, December 15). Retrieved August 20, 2015.
- Encyclopedia of Islam. Lahore, Pakistan. 1971. p. 264.
- "Al-Biruni, Abdul".
- Encyclopædia Britannica, al-Biruni (Persian scholar and scientist) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Britannica.com, retrieved 2010-02-28
- Bosworth, C. E. (1968), “The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000–1217)”, J.A. Boyle (ed.), Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, Cambridge University Press: 1–202. . Excerpt from page 7:"The Iranian scholar al-BIruni says that the Khwarazmian era began when the region was first settled and cultivated, this date being placed in the early 13th-century BC)"
- Richard Frye: "The contribution of Iranians to Islamic mathematics is overwhelming. ..The name of Abu Raihan Al-Biruni, from Khwarazm, must be mentioned since he was one of the greatest scientists in World History"(R.N. Frye, "The Golden age of Persia", 2000, Phoenix Press. pg 162)
- M. A. Saleem Khan, "Al-Biruni's discovery of India: an interpretative study", iAcademicBooks, 2001. pg 11: "It is generally accepted that he was Persian by origin, and spoke the Khwarizmian dialect" 
- Rahman, H. U. (1995), A Chronology of Islamic History : 570 – 1000 CE, London: Mansell Publishing, p. 167, ISBN 1-897940-32-7,
A Persian by birth, Biruni produced his writings in Arabic, though he knew, besides Persian, no less than four other languages
- Biruni (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 April 2007;
- David C. Lindberg, Science in the Middle Ages, University of Chicago Press, p. 18:
"A Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna and Alhazen not only studied history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu'di."
- L. Massignon, "Al-Biruni et la valuer internationale de la science arabe" in Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume, (Calcutta, 1951). pp 217–219.
“ In a celebrated preface to the book of Drugs, Biruni says, "And if it is true that in all nations one likes to adorn oneself by using the language to which one has remained loyal, having become accustomed to using it with friends and companions according to need, I must judge for myself that in my native Khwarezmian, science has as much as chance of becoming perpetuated as a camel has of facing Kaaba." ”
- Gotthard Strohmaier, "Biruni" in Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index: Vol. 1 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 2006. excerpt from page 112: "Although his native Khwarezmian was also an Iranian language, he rejected the emerging neo-Persian literature of his time (Firdawsi), preferring Arabic instead as the only adequate medium of science.";
- D. N. MacKenzie, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "CHORASMIA iii. The Chorasmian Language". Excerpt: "Chorasmian, the original Iranian language of Chorasmia, is attested at two stages of its development. The earliest examples have been left by the great Chorasmian scholar Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī.";
- A.L. Samian, "Al-Biruni" in Helaine Selin (ed.), "Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures ", Springer, 1997. excerpt frae page 157: "his native language was the Khwarizmian dialect"
- D.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238. Excerpt 1: "He was born of an Iranian family in 362/973 (according to al-Ghadanfar, on 3 Dhu'l-Hididja/ 4 September — see E. Sachau, Chronology, xivxvi), in the suburb (birun) of Kath, capital of Khwarizm". Excerpt 2:"was one of the greatest scholars of mediaeval Islam, and certainly the most original and profound. He was equally well versed in the mathematical, astronomic, physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian, chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds. He is known as al-Ustdadh, "the Master".
- Berggren, J. L.; Borwein, Jonathan; Borwein, Peter (2014). Pi: A Source Book (in Inglis). Springer. p. 680. ISBN 9781475742176.
The Persian polymath, al-Birüni, a younger contemporary of Abu'l-Wafa', calculated the perimeters of inscribed and ...